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Chicago Referencing Guide

The Chicago style of referencing presents two basic documentation systems: (1) notes and bibliography and (2) author-date. Choosing between the two often depends on subject matter and the nature of sources cited, as each system is favoured by different groups of scholars. Chicago referencing style is usually used in humanities disciplines, and an in-text citation style, which is most commonly used in the sciences.

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Chicago Referencing Overview

The Chicago citation style is the method established by the University of Chicago Press for documenting sources used in a research paper and is probably the most commonly used footnote format. Below are instructions for using footnotes to cite most of the sources encountered in undergraduate research. It is a good idea to read through these instructions before beginning to write your paper. Please note that footnotes are so-named because they appear at the bottom of the page that contains the text you are annotating. Endnotes follow the same citation style, but are listed together at the end of the paper before the bibliography. Only use endnotes at the specific request of the instructor; use footnotes otherwise.

For additional information or for instructions on proper citing of sources not covered below, please see one of these books, or a more recent edition:

University of Chicago Press. The Chicago Manual of Style. 15th ed. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 2003.

Hacker, Diana. A Pocket Style Manual. 5th ed. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2009.

Or, for an online version:

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

Or this document on the Ohio State University library website:

http://library.osu.edu/sites/guides/chicagogd.php

  1. Books
  2. Journal Articles
  3. Offline sources
  4. Other source types

General Guidelines:

• Your footnotes should be numbered consecutively throughout the paper. Use your word processing program to insert footnotes and it will number them for you automatically.

• The footnote number should always be inserted after the punctuation.1

• The first time you cite a source, you will include a full citation. For all subsequent references to that text, your footnote citation will be in abbreviated form. (More detail below.)

• Cite authors’ names as they appear in the texts. Don’t replace first names with initials unless the names appear this way on the title page of the source. If no author is listed, organize the entry by the title.

1. Books

Citations for books with Single author:

Footnote style

Author’s first name Last name, Title in Italics and in Headline Style (City of Publication: Publisher, Year), page number if relevant.

Subsequent references to the same text:

Last name, Title in Shortened Form, page number.

Note: If your second reference to a text comes immediately after the first, use “Ibid.” in place of the author’s name and the book title. Include the page number if it is different from that listed in the first reference.

For example:

1. Kent Portney, Taking Sustainable Cities Seriously (Cambridge: MIT Press, 2003).

2. Ibid., 162.

3. David Harvey, The Condition of Postmodernity: An Enquiry Into the Origins of Cultural Change (New York: Blackwell, 1989), 197.

4. Robert O. Self, American Babylon: Race and the Struggle for Postwar Oakland (Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 2003).

5. Harvey, The Condition of Postmodernity, 86-87.

Note: The second, third and fifth footnotes above cite direct quotes or material found on one or more specific pages, therefore the page numbers of the source are included.

Bibliography

Basic format: Author’s last name, First name. Title. City: Publisher, Year.

For example:

1. Harvey, David. The Condition of Postmodernity: An Enquiry Into the Origins of Cultural Change. NewYork: Blackwell, 1989.

2. Portney, Kent. Taking Sustainable Cities Seriously. Cambridge, MIT Press, 2003.

3. Self, Robert O. American Babylon: Race and the Struggle for Postwar Oakland. Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 2003.

Citations for books with Multiple authors:

Footnote style

For two or three authors, list each of the authors in the order presented on the title page of the book. For more than three authors, list the first author’s name followed by “and others” or “et al.”:

X. First name Last name and First name Last Name, Title (City: Publisher, Date), page number if relevant.

X. First name Last name et al., Title (City: Publisher, Date), page number if relevant.

Subsequent references to the same text:

X. Last name and Last name, Title, page number.

X. Last name et al., Title, page number.

For example:

1. Harriet Bulkeley and Michele M. Betsill, Cities and Climate Change: Urban Sustainability and Global Environmental Governance (London: Routledge, 2003), 25.

2. Randall Arendt et al., Growing Greener: Putting Conservation into Local Plans and Ordinances (Washington, DC: Island Press, 1999).

3. Bulkeley and Betsill, Cities and Climate Change, 27.

4. Arendt et al., Growing Greener.

Bibliography

Basic format: Last name, First name, and First name Last name. Title. City: Publisher, Year.

For example:

1. Arendt, Randall, Holly Harper, Stephen Kuter, and Diane Rosencrance. Growing Greener: Putting Conservation into Local Plans and Ordinances. Washington, DC: Island Press, 1999.

2. Bulkeley, Harriet, and Michele M. Betsill. Cities and Climate Change: Urban Sustainability and Global Environmental Governance. London: Routledge, 2003.

Note: In contrast to footnotes, bibliographic citations for works with four or more authors should include the names of all authors. See the Arendt entry above.

Citations for books Edited Volume or Chapter Within an Edited Volume:

Footnote style

Occasionally you will need to cite an edited book containing chapters by various authors. If citing the overarching idea of the entire book, use the editors’ names as you would the names of authors, following their names with “ed.” (short for editor, not to be mistaken for the abbreviation of “edition”). Works with a translator (trans.) or a compiler (comp.) would be treated similarly.

Basic format:

Editor’s First name Last name, ed., Title (City: Publisher, Year), page number if relevant.

For example:

Footnote style

Warren Magnusson and Karena Shaw, eds., A Political Space: Reading the Global Through Clayoquot Sound (Minneapolis: Univ. of Minnesota Press, 2003).

Subsequent references to the same text:

Magnusson and Shaw, eds. A Political Space.

More frequently, you will cite a particular essay or chapter in an edited book. In this case your footnote will refer to the specific chapter or essay but will also include the title of the book and its editors. The format is as follows:

Author’s First name Last name, “Chapter Title,” in Book Title, ed. Editor’s name (City: Publisher, Year), page number if relevant.

Subsequent references to the same text:

Last name, Chapter Title, page number.

For example:

Timothy W. Luke, “On the Political Economy of Clayoquot Sound,” in A Political Space: Reading the Global Through Clayoquot Sound, ed. Warren Magnusson and Karena Shaw (Minneapolis: Univ. of Minnesota Press, 2003), 99.

Luke, “On the Political Economy of Clayoquot Sound,” 101.

Bibliography

Basic format: Editor’s Last name, First name, ed. Title. City: Publisher, Year.
or:
Author’s Last name, First name. “Chapter Title.” In Book Title, edited by Editor’s Name, page numbers of chapter. City: Publisher, Year.

For example:

Luke, Timothy W. “On the Political Economy of Clayoquot Sound.” In A Political Space: Reading the Global Through Clayoquot Sound, edited by Warren Magnusson and Karena Shaw, 91-112. Minneapolis: Univ. of Minnesota Press, 2003.

Magnusson, Warren and Karena Shaw, eds. A Political Space: Reading the Global Through Clayoquot Sound. Minneapolis: Univ. of Minnesota Press, 2003.

Citations for a book in Multiple Editions:

Include the edition number after the title, not italicized:

Footnote style

First name Last name, Title, Number ed. (City, Publisher, Year), page number if relevant.

Subsequent references to the same text:

Last name, Title, page number.

For example:

Footnote style

1. Michael E. Kraft, Environmental Policy and Politics, 4th ed. (New York: Pearson, 2007).

In-text style

2. Kraft, Environmental Policy and Politics, 54.

Bibliography

Basic format: Last name, First name. Title. Number ed. City: Publisher, Year.

For example:

Kraft, Michael E. Environmental Policy and Politics. 4th ed. New York: Pearson, 2007.


2. Journal Articles

Citations for Print Journals

Basic format:

Author’s First name Last name, “Article Title,” Journal Title Volume, Issue No. (Year): page number.

Subsequent references to the same text:

Last name, “Article Title,” page number.

For example:

1. Keith Dowding, “Explaining Urban Regimes,” International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 25, no. 1 (2001): 12.

2. Marina Alberti, “Measuring Urban Sustainability,” Environmental Impact Assessment Review, 1996, no. 16: 390.

3. Roger Keil, “Globalization Makes States: Perspectives of Local Governance in the Age of the World City,” Review of International Political Economy 5, no. 4 (1998): 617.

4. Alberti, “Measuring Urban Sustainability,” 391.

Note: As in the Alberti example above, if the year serves as the volume number, it should not be in parentheses.

Bibliography

Basic format: Last name, First name. “Article Title.” Journal Title Volume, Issue no. (Year): page range.

For example:

Alberti, Marina. “Measuring Urban Sustainability.” Environmental Impact Assessment Review, 1996, no.16: 381-424.

Dowding, Keith. “Explaining Urban Regimes.” International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 25, no. 1 (2001): 7-19.

Keil, Roger. “Globalization Makes States: Perspectives of Local Governance in the Age of the World City.” Review of International Political Economy 5, no. 4 (1998): 616–646.

Citations for Web Sources

Note: Not all information available on the internet should be considered a valid source for academic research. Use common sense in deciding what internet sites to include in your research. For example, wikipedia.org is generally not considered an appropriate source of information for an academic paper. If you are unsure if a site is appropriate, check with your professor or TA.

Footnote style

If an online source is also a print source (a journal or newspaper article, etc.) or has a clear online publishing date (such as online news sources), footnote it in the same way as you would footnote the source if it were in print, adding the URL and access date if the information is time sensitive:

Author’s First name Last name, “Article Title,” Web Site Title. Sponsor, Original publication Month Day, Year, URL. (accessed Month Day, Year).

If citing an entire website, include the title of the site, the name of the sponsoring organization, the publication date or date of latest update (if available), URL, and access date if time sensitive.

In-text style

Author’s First name Last name, Web Site Title, URL (accessed Month Day, Year).

For example:

Footnote style

1. Keith Schneider, “Salt Lake City is Finding a Payoff in Conservation,” New York Times, November 7, 2007, http://www.nytimes.com/2007/11/07/business/businessspecial3/07cities.html (accessed November 14, 2007).

In-text style

2. Seattle Chamber of Commerce, Seattle Metronatural, http://www.visitseattle.org/bureau/brand.asp (accessed Mar. 16, 2008).

Bibliography

Basic format: Last name, First name. “Article Title.” Web Site Title. Sponsor, Original publication Month Day, Year. URL. (accessed Month Day, Year).
or
Last name, First name. Web Site Title. URL. (accessed Month Day, Year).

For example:

Schneider, Keith. “Salt Lake City is Finding a Payoff in Conservation.” New York Times, November 7, 2007. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/11/07/business/businessspecial3/07cities.html (accessed November 14, 2007)..

Seattle Chamber of Commerce. Seattle Metronatural. http://www.visitseattle.org/bureau/brand.asp (accessed Mar. 16, 2008).


3. Offline sources

Citations for Class Lectures:

Class lectures should only be cited in papers written for the course in which that lecture was given.

Footnote style

Lecture, Sept. 26, 2006.

Bibliography

No bibliography entry is needed.

Citations for Course Readers:

Most material in your course readers was originally published as a journal article, newspaper article, or book chapter. It should therefore be cited as such.

Citations for Magazine Articles:

Cite as you would a book, with the author’s name (if available) followed by the title and date. For weekly or bi-weekly magazines, give the exact date (month day, year). For monthly or bi-monthly magazines, just the month(s) is sufficient. Include page numbers only if noting a direct quote (as in example 2 below). Magazines should be cited by publication date, even if a volume number is provided.

Footnote style

Author’s First name Last name, “Article Title,” Magazine Title, Month Day, Year, page number if relevant.

Subsequent references to the same text:

Last name, “Article Title,” page number if relevant.

For example:

Footnote style

1. “Dubious Venture,” Time, Jan. 3, 1994.

In-text style

2. James Fallows, “The Early-Decision Racket,” Atlantic Monthly, Sept. 2001, 37-52.

Bibliography

Basic format: Last name, First name. “Article Title.” Magazine Title, Month Day, Year, page range.

For example:

“Dubious Venture.” Time, Jan. 3, 1994, 64-65. Fallows, James. “The Early-Decision Racket.” Atlantic Monthly, Sept. 2001, 37-52.

Citations for Newspaper Articles:

A footnote for a newspaper article should include: Name of author (if known); title of the article, month, day and year of publication; the edition (final, West Coast, etc.) if available; the section if in print or the URL if found online. You can omit page numbers.

Basic format:

Last name, First name, “Article Title,” Newspaper Title, Month Day, Year, edition, section.

Or:

Last name, First name, “Article Title,” Newspaper Title, Original publication Month Day, Year, URL.

Subsequent references to the same text:

Last name, “Article Title,” Date.

For example:

1. Kevin Sack, “In Partisan Battle, Governors Clash with Attorneys General over Lawsuits,” New York Times, Mar. 28, 2010, late edition, sec. A.

2. Keith Schneider, “Salt Lake City is Finding a Payoff in Conservation,” New York Times, November 7, 2007, http://www.nytimes.com/2007/11/07/business/businessspecial3/07cities.html (accessed November 14, 2007).

Bibliography

Basic format: Last name, First name. “Article Title.” Newspaper Title, Month Day, Year, section.

If accessed online, replace the section with the URL.

For example:

Sack, Kevin. “In Partisan Battle, Governors Clash with Attorneys General over Lawsuits.” New York Times, Mar. 28, 2010, late edition, sec. A.

Schneider, Keith. “Salt Lake City is Finding a Payoff in Conservation.” New York Times, November 7, 2007, http://www.nytimes.com/2007/11/07/business/businessspecial3/07cities.html.


4. Other source types

Citations for Interviews:

Footnote style

Regardless of the form of the interview, your footnote should begin with the name of the person interviewed. Anonymous interviews can be cited as such, with general information regarding the interviewee. Published interviews should include the full citation of where the interview was found (for instance, in a book or on the radio). In examples 2 and 3 below, it is assumed that you (the author) conducted the interviews.

For example:

1. Donald E. Felsinger, “Turning Energy Uncertainty into Opportunity,” interview by Clifford Krauss. New York Times, May 3, 2008, late edition, sec. C.

2. George Smith, e-mail message to author, March 17, 2008

3. Interview with Congressional aide, February 9, 2008.

Bibliography

If you conducted the interview, no bibliography entry is needed. For published or broadcast interviews, cite as you would for a book section, newspaper article, radio broadcast, etc.

For example:

Fellini, Federico. “The long interview.” Juliet of the Spirits. Edited by Tullio Kezich. Trans. Howard Greenfield. New York: Ballantine, 1966. 17-64.

Felsinger, Donald E. “Turning Energy Uncertainty into Opportunity.” Interview by Clifford Krauss. New York Times, May 3, 2008, late edition, sec. C.

Gordimer, Nadine. Interview. New York Times, Oct. 10, 1991, late edition, sec. C.

Citations for Legal Sources:

Footnote

Citing constitutions: Cite constitutions by the name, article, section, and paragraph (depending on how specific your reference is):

1. U.S. Constitution, art. 1, sec. 1.

2. Arizona Constitution, par. 3.

Citing an act (law): In most cases you can provide all basic information about an act (if it is a federal or state law, the title of the act, and the year it was passed) in the body of your text and it will therefore not need to be footnoted:

For example:

Congress’s passage of the Aviation and Transportation Security Act of 2001 increased national requirements for airport security checks.e

Citing a legal case: As with laws, legal cases should usually be referred to in the text of your essay and footnotes are not needed. Names of cases are abbreviated by the name of each party involved and should be underlined. The year the case was decided is put in parentheses just after the name of the case:

For example:

In Brown v. Board of Education (1954) the Supreme Court rejected the segregation of public schools by race.

Citations for Government Publications:

Footnote

As government documents usually do not have authors, cite them by the name of the agency. Otherwise, follow the same rules as for books and journals.

Provide the following information:

Name of Government, Government Agency, Subsidiary division/regional office/etc., Title of the Publication, date, publication number, report number, or Congressional session (if available or relevant), Place of Publication: Publisher, Date, page number if relevant.

For example:

1. Department of the Treasury, Internal Revenue Service, 1978 Statistics of Income, Individual Income Tax Returns, 1981, Pub. 79 (3-81), Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.

2. Joint Committee on the Investigation of the Pearl Harbor Attack, Hearings, 1946, 79th Cong., 1st and 2nd sess., Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.

3. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, A Profile of the Working Poor, 2001, 2003, Report 968, Washington, DC.

Note: If the document is printed by the issuing body (as in the Department of Labor example above), publisher information is not required.

Bibliography

Include all of the information listed above.

For example:

U.S. Congress, Joint Committee on the Investigation of the Pearl Harbor Attack. Hearings. 1946, 79th Cong., 1st and 2nd sess., Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.

U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. A Profile of the Working Poor, 2001. 2003, Report 968, Washington, DC.

U.S. Department of the Treasury, Internal Revenue Service. 1978 Statistics of Income, Individual Income Tax Returns. 1981, Pub. 79 (3-81), Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.