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Harvard Referencing Guide

The Harvard referencing style is a system that students, writers and researchers can use to incorporate other people’s quotes, findings and ideas into their work in order to support and validate their conclusions without breaching any intellectual property laws. The popular Harvard referencing style is typically used in assignments and publications for humanities as well as natural, social and behavioural sciences.

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Harvard Referencing Overview

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Harvard Referencing comes in two main types. One of them is in-text citation; this one is found within the body of your essay. They are like a summary of the bibliography list found at the bottom of your work. The other form is reference list which appears at the bottom of your essay or research. It contains the name of the author, year and title. Reference list shows the full information of the in-text citation.

In order to reference different materials using this style, different information is required. For example, you require different information for a book which is different from what is required for a journal, electronic source or an article. The information provided in this guide will help you understand how to reference different materials such as:

  1. Books
  2. Articles
  3. Online sources
  4. Images/visual mediums
  5. Other source types

Important Things to Remember

The list of references is arranged alphabetically using the first name of the author. This must be the surname. In case you have cited different materials by the same author, the order will be determined by the year of publication.

When you quote directly from the sources, you need to provide the page number of the source (Direct). In another case, you will need to reference the author if you use some words from the source and you have paraphrased them (indirect). The example below demonstrates this.

Direct: ' "Technology promotes efficiency in the workplace," (Samuel, 2014, p.9).'

Indirect: 'According to Samuel (2014), technology is instrumental in promoting efficiency in the workplace.'

As illustrated above, you must include a page number when you direct from the sources, otherwise is not a must. Just in case the source you have quoted does not have a page number, you are free to use the paragraph number. Always use “n.p” or n.pag.” to show there is no page number.

1. Books

The illustration below shows how to cite a book with only one author.

Author’s Last name, first initial. (Year). Title. Edition (when it is not the first edition). City of publication: Publisher.

For example:

Jackson, M. (2014). Project Management. New York: Sage Publication.

Jackson, M. (2014). Project Management. 4th Ed. New York: Sage Publication.

Book citation with more than one author:

Author’s Last name, first initial. Last name, first initial and last name, first initial. (Year). Title. City of publication: Publisher.

For example:

James, R. and Davis, S. (2007). A Handbook of Project Management: New York: Sage Publication.

James, V., Johnson, S. and Martin, T. (2009). Envisioning Project Management. Boston: McGraw-Hill.

Referencing a book with four or more authors:

In case you are citing a book with four or more authors, only the name of the first authors should appear followed by “et al”. Et al means and other. Despite this instruction, the names of all other authors should appear on the reference list as per the order of the original book.

Last name, first initial, Last name, first initial, Last name, first initial, and Last name, first initial. (Year). Title. City of publication: Publisher.

For example:

John, P., Jackson, N., Davis, S. and Allan, N. (2014). How to incorporate technology into your business processes. Boston: McGraw Hill.

Citing a book chapter:

Citing a part of the original book says a chapter, it is crucial you include the page numbers within which the chapter appears. In case you want to cite a single chapter, it is advisable that you include the book edition. This is done if the book is not the first edition.

Last name, first initial. (Year). Chapter title. In: Editor's name/s (ed/s) Book Title. Edition. City of publication: Publisher. Page/s.

For example:

Jackson, M. (2012). Supply Chain Management. 1st ed. New York: Sage Publications, pp. 30-45.

Citing multiple books by the same author:

In this case, the references from one author can only be differentiated by use of year of publication. The list should be listed chronologically from the oldest to the most recent. If you come across two sources which were published in the same year by the same author, then use a,b or c just next to the year to differentiate them.

Last name, first initial. (Year). Title. Edition (if not the first edition of the book). City of publication: Publisher.

For example:

Greg, M. (2010). Management. New York: Sage Publications.

Greg, M. (2011). Project Management. New York: Sage Publications.

Greg, M. (2016a). Management in 21st Century. New York: Sage Publications.

Greg, M. (2016b). Event management. New York: Sage Publications.

Tools for creating Harvard Book references:

Reference a Book Reference a Book Chapter


2. Articles

Citations for Print Journals

Last name, First initial. (Year). Article Title. Journal name, Volume (Issue), Page/s.

For example:

Joseph, B. (1999). Project Management. Journal of Project Management, Volume 4 (7), pp. 50-59.

Citations for Journal Articles accessed on a website or database

In citing an online journal, follow the same citation pattern of a print article. However, the citation has differences in the reference list.

Last name, First initial. (Year). Article Title. Journal name, Volume (Issue), Page/s. Available from: URL. [Accessed: date].

For example:

Joseph, B. (1999). Project Management. Journal of Project Management, Volume 4 (7), pp. 50-59. Available at: www.journalofprojectmanagemnet.com [Accessed: 2 Oct 2017].

Citations for Newspaper Articles – Print or Online:

The newspaper is referenced in the same manner as journal article but the format change for an online one. The example below illustrates this.

Last name, First initial. (Year). Article title. Newspaper name, Page/s.

Last name, First initial. (Year). Article Title. Newspaper name, Page/s. Retrieved from: Journal name/ URL if freely available.

For example:

Bill, B. (2018). Chapati Cooking Recipe. The Monthly Read, p. 5.

James, P. (2016). Fresh prepared Salad. The Monthly Read, p.22. Available at: www.themontlyreadonline.com/freswhpreparedsalad2016 [Accessed 21 July 2016].

Citations for Magazine Articles – Print or Online:

In Harvard citation, you should cite the volume number for a magazine.

Last name, First initial. (Year). Article title. Magazine name, volume number, Page/s.

Last name, First initial. (Year, Month Day). Article Title. Magazine name, [online] Page/s. Retrieved from: URL

For example:

Jakes, S. (2010). Five easy ways to build your muscles. Healthy Lifestyles, (10), pp. 40-46.

Jakes, S. (2010, October 23). The best fruits to build your muscles. Healthy Lifestyles. Retrieved from: www.healthylifestylesmag.com/bestfruitstobuildmuscles2009

Tools for creating Harvard Journal references:

Reference a Journal Article


3. Online sources

Citing Websites

WIn citing a website, the author of the website is very important. If the website does not have a specific individual as the author but an organization then, you should recognize the organization as the author. The following format should be followed:

Author/Source if no specific author (Year). Title of web document/page. [online]. (Last updated: if this information is available). Available at: URL [Accessed date: Day/Month/Year].

For example:

Healthy Living (2017). The best fruits to eat in the morning [online]. (Last updated 20th August 2017). Available at: www.healthlivingarticles.com/thebestfruitstoeatinthemorning [Accessed 20 June 2016]

Citations for emails:

Sender's last name, First initial. (Year). Subject Line of Email. [email].

For example:

Eunice, N. (2017). Last meeting minutes for Adili. [email].

Citations for Social Media:

Last name of author, First initial. (Year). Title of page [Social media format]. Day/month/year written. Available from: URL. [Accessed: Day/Month/Year].

For example:

Jeff, K. (2016). Ladies of New York [Facebook]. Written 4 July 2016 Available from www.facebook.com/ladiesofnewyorkf2014 [Accessed 30 September 2016].

Tools for referencing online sources:

Reference a Website Reference a Wiki Reference a Blog Reference an Email


4. Images/visual mediums

Citations for films/videos/DVDs:

Full Title of Film/Video/DVD. Year of release. [Type of medium]. Director. Country of Origin: Film studio or maker. (Any other relevant details).

For example:

Life after Campus. (2011). [Film]. Directed by Matrid. N. U.S: Dada Studios.

Citations for YouTube videos:

Username of contributor. (Year). Video Title, Series Title (if relevant). [type of medium]. Available at: URL. [Accessed: Day/ Month/ Year].

For example:

Chuchu TV (2015). Pussycat [YouTube video]. Available at: www.youtube.com/chuchutvpussycat [Accessed 30 June 2016].

Citations for broadcasts:

Series title and episode name/number. (Year). [Year of broadcast]. Broadcasting organisation and channel, date and time of transmission.

For example:

The voice: USA, episode 10. (2014). [Broadcast 2014]. CTV 1 first transmitted 30 July 2013, 20:00.

Citations for images/photographs – Print or Online:

Last name of artist/photographer, first initial (if known). (Year of production). Title of image. [type of medium] (Collection Details if available – Document number, Geographical place: Name of library/archive/repository).

For example:

Howard, E. (2013). Simon’s bridal team. [Photograph]. (Document number 345, London: Food Photography Library).

Citations for maps:

Map maker's name. (Year of issue). Title of map. Map series, sheet number, scale. Place of publication: publisher.

For example:

Google maps. (2003). Map of USA. Local Maps, sheet 5, scale 1: 250,000. New York: Sage Publications.

Citations for podcasts:

Broadcaster/author's name. (Year). Programme title, series title (if relevant). [type of medium] date of transmission. Available at: URL [Accessed date: Day/Month/Year].

For example:

Chuchu TV. (2017). Children songs. [Podcast]. Transmitted 16 October 2016. Available at: www.chuchutv.com/chuchutvchildrensongs [Accessed: 17 April 2017].


5. Other source types

Citations for reports:

Organisation/author. (Year). Full title of report. Place of publication: Publisher.

For example:

Robert and Kevin. (2015). A report on the state of the economy in Africa. London: Sage Publications.

Citations for dissertations:

Last name of author, first initial. (Year). Title of dissertation. Level. Official name of university.

For example:

Joan, G. (2000). An investigation on the impact of solar energy on the economy. Undergraduate level. Harvard University Press.

Citations for Acts of Parliament:

Short title (key words capitalised), which includes the year and the chapter number in brackets. Place of publication: publisher.

For example:

Poison Act 2003 (c. 5). USA: Government Publications.

Citations for government/official publications:

Government agency/Last name of author, first initial. (Year). Title of document. City of publication: publisher, Page(s) if relevant.

For example:

Germany Government. (2014). Refuge protection in Germany. Germany: Government Publications.

Citations for interviews:

Last name of interviewer, first initial, and last name of interviewee, first initial. (Year). Title/description of interview.

For example:

Freeman, H and Bill, B. (2003). Discussing Masculinity.

Citations for presentations/lectures:

Last name of author, first initial. (Year). Presentation/lecture title.

For example:

Jakes, R. (2010). Advantages of eating Kales.

Citations for music:

Performer/writer's last name, first initial. (Year). Recording title. [Medium]. City published: music label.

For example:

Lucy, F. (2013). Deliverer. [CD Recording]. Boston: All Music.

Citations for dictionaries:

Publisher. (Year). Full title of dictionary. Place of publication: Publisher.

For example:

John. (2011). New English Dictionary. New York: McGraw Hill Publications.

Citations for computer programs/software:

Name of software/program. (Year). Place/city where software was written: Company/publisher.

For example:

Microsoft Word. (2008). California: Microsoft Software.

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